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References

Smoking Facts

Maternal smoking has been linked to abnormal lung function in children; the defects persist throughout life

1. Hazelden Foundation (1998). Heading off a nation of teenage smokers. New York Times, 17/11/98.

2. Flaxman, J. (1978) Quitting smoking now or later: Gradual, abrupt, immediate and delayed quitting. Behavior Therapy, 9, 260-270.

3. Farkas, A.J. (1999) When does cigarette fading increase the likelihood of future cessation? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 71-76.

4. Gunther, V., Gritsch, S. & Meise, U. (1992) Smoking cessation - gradual or sudden stopping? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 29, 231-236.

5. Zacny, J.P. & Stitzer, M.L. (1998) Cigarette brand-switching: Effects on smoke exposure and smoking behavior. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 246, 619-627.

6. Hill, A.A. (1982) Target-setting self-control for smoking. Psychological Reports, 50, 68-70.

7. Henningfield, J.E, & Griffiths, R.R. (1980) Effects of ventilated cigarette holders on cigarette smoking by humans. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 68, 115-119.

8. Cinciripini, P.M., Lapitsky, L., Seay, S., Wallfisch, A., Kitchens, K. & Van Vunakis, H. (1995) The effects of smoking schedules on cessation outcome: Can we improve on common methods of gradual and abrupt nicotine withdrawal. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol., 63, 388-399.

9. Stitzer, M.L., Brigham, J. & Felch, L.J. (1992) Phase-out filter perforation: Effects on human tobacco smoke exposure. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 41, 749-754.

10. Stillwell & Gladding Testing Laboratories. (April 19, 1993) Cigarette smoking tests using Accudrop (=NicoBloc) filter solution.

11. Pickworth, W.B., Fant, R.V., Nelson, R.A. & Henningfield, J.E. (1998) Effects of cigarette smoking through a partially occluded filter. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 60, 817-821.

12. Gariti, P. & Alterman, A. (1997) Testing a smoking cessation aid. College on Problems of Drug Dependence. 59th Annual Meeting. Nashville TN June 1997. In: L.S. Harris (ed), Problems of Drug Dependence. NIDA Research monograph 178. p.158.

13. Becona, E. & Garcia, M.P. (1993) Nicotine fading and smokeholding methods to smoking cessation. Psychological Reports, 73, 779-786.